The State Environmental Protection Administration issued the "2004 China Environmental Status Bulletin" at the press conference
State Environmental Protection Administration at the State Council Information Office "6th Five-Year" World Environment Day
The "2004 China Environmental Status Bulletin" was released at the press conference.
On June 2, 2005, the State Council Information Office held a press conference on the “Sixth Five-Year” World Environment Day. The State Environmental Protection Administration issued the "2004 China Environmental Status Bulletin" and "China's Urban Environmental Protection". Wang Yuqing and Wang Jiyu, deputy directors of the State Environmental Protection Administration, answered questions from reporters. The following is a summary of the 2004 State of the Environment Bulletin:
Summary of the 2004 State of the Environment Bulletin
State Environmental Protection Administration
June 2, 2005
In 2004, the national environmental quality was basically stable. The city's air quality is comparable to that of the previous year, and pollution in some cities is still serious. Acid rain pollution is slightly aggravating. The surface water quality did not change significantly. The seawater quality in the coastal waters was basically the same as that in the previous year, and the pollution in the East China Sea and the Bohai Sea was serious. The quality of the urban acoustic environment is good, and the quality of the radiation environment is basically maintained at the natural background level. The area of cultivated land is still decreasing. There is no significant improvement in the ecological situation. The climate is a preferred year.
Among the 412 water quality monitoring sections of the seven major water systems in the freshwater environment in 2004, the proportions of the water quality of I to III, IV to V and V were: 41.8%, 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. Last year, it was basically flat. The water quality of the Pearl River and the Yangtze River was good. The water quality of the Liaohe River, Huaihe River, Yellow River and Songhua River was poor, and the water quality of the Haihe River was poor. The main pollution indicators are ammonia nitrogen, five-day biochemical oxygen demand, permanganate index and petroleum.
The Haihe River system is heavily polluted, and the proportion of the inferior V water quality is 56.7%. Compared with the previous year, there is no significant change in water quality; the Liaohe River system is moderately polluted, and the sections of I to III, IV to V and V are not. The proportions are: 32.4%, 29.7% and 37.9%, respectively. Compared with the previous year, the overall water quality improved. The Huaihe River system is moderately polluted, and the proportions of I-III, IV-V and V-class water quality are 19.8%. 47.6% and 32.6%, some tributaries are still seriously polluted, and there is no significant change in water quality compared with the previous year; the Yellow River water system is moderately polluted, and the proportions of I-III, IV-V and inferior V water quality are 36.4 respectively. %, 34.1% and 29.5%, the tributary pollution is heavier, there is no significant change in water quality compared with the previous year; the Songhua River water system is moderately polluted, and the proportions of the water quality of I～III, IV～V and V are respectively 21.9%, 53.7% and 24.4%, compared with the previous year, the overall water quality deteriorated; the Yangtze River water system is mildly polluted, and the proportions of I-III, IV-V and inferior V water quality are 72.1% and 18.3%, respectively. And 9.6%, the water quality has not changed significantly compared with the previous year, and the water quality of the Yangtze River boundary section is good. ; Pearl River generally good water quality class Ⅰ ~ Ⅲ, Ⅳ ~ Ⅴ section ratio and worse than Grade Ⅴ was respectively 78.8%, 15.1% and 6.1%, essentially flat compared with the previous year quality.
In 2004, the pollution levels of the seven major water systems were from heavy to light: Haihe, Liaohe, Huaihe, Yellow, Songhua, Yangtze and Pearl.
Among the 27 key lakes monitored in 2004, there are 2 lakes with Class II water quality, 5 lakes with Class III water quality, 4 lakes with Class IV water quality, and 6 water quality lakes with V class. 10 lakes. Among them, the water quality of “Three Lakes” (Taihu, Chaohu, Dianchi) is inferior to V due to the high concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The water quality of Taihu Lake has improved compared with the previous year, but it is still in a moderately eutrophic state. Dianchi Caohai is heavily eutrophic, and the outer sea is moderately eutrophic. Compared with the previous year, the water quality has improved. The water quality of Chaohu Lake is moderately eutrophic and there is no significant change in water quality.
Among the 47 key cities, 25, 8, 3, 10 and 1 compared with the previous year, the water quality compliance rate of urban drinking water sources increased slightly.
In 2004, among the 187 cities in the country, compared with the previous year, there were 39 groundwater pollution reductions, 52 pollution increases, and 96 water quality stability. The groundwater quality of major cities and regions is greatly affected by human activities, and the contents of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia nitrogen and chloride are generally increased. Among the 192 major cities in China in 2004, compared with the previous year, there were 53 cities with an increasing groundwater level (more than 0.5 m), and 61 cities with a decreasing water level. The water level remained basically balanced. Cities. The groundwater level rise and fall is generally less than 3 meters, local area is more than 5 meters, and parts of East China reach 10 to 40 meters.
In 2004, the wastewater discharge was 48.24 billion tons, of which industrial wastewater discharge was 22.11 billion tons, and domestic sewage discharge was 26.13 billion tons. The chemical oxygen demand emissions were 13.392 million tons, which was basically the same as last year, of which industrial emissions were 5.097 million tons, domestic emissions were 8.295 million tons, and ammonia nitrogen emissions were 1.33 million tons, a slight increase from last year, including industrial emissions. The amount is 422,000 tons and the domestic emissions are 908,000 tons.
Marine environment In 2004, most of the offshore waters were in good water quality, but local sea areas were aggravated. The water quality in the offshore waters is in good condition.
In 2004, a total of 246 stations were monitored in the coastal waters of the country. The proportion of primary and secondary seawater accounted for 49.6%, which was basically the same as that of the previous year; the third type of seawater accounted for 15.4%, down 4.4 percentage points from the previous year; four categories, four inferior The seawater accounted for 35.0%, an increase of 5 percentage points over the previous year. In 2004, compared with the four sea areas, the water quality in the Yellow Sea and the South China Sea was generally better, and the pollution in the Bohai Sea and the East China Sea increased. Compared with the previous year, the proportion of seawater in the first and second classes of the Yellow Sea increased by 14.7 percentage points, the South China Sea increased by 19.8 percentage points, the Bohai Sea decreased by 9.6 percentage points, and the East China Sea decreased by 13.2 percentage points.
A total of 96 red tides were found in the entire sea area in 2004, a decrease of 23 times from the previous year. The cumulative area of red tides was 26,630 square kilometers, an increase of 83.0% over the previous year, with large areas of red tide concentrated in the East China Sea.
Atmospheric environment The overall urban air quality in the whole country has not changed much from the previous year. The air quality of some cities with more serious pollution has improved, and the proportion of inferior third-class cities has decreased. However, the proportion of air quality reaching the secondary standard cities is also decreasing. Of the 342 cities monitored in 2004, 132 cities met the national secondary air quality standard (residential standard), accounting for 38.6%, a decrease of 3.1 percentage points over the previous year; 141 cities with air quality at the third level accounted for 141 41.2%, an increase of 9.7 percentage points over the previous year; 69 cities inferior to the third level, accounting for 20.2%, a decrease of 6.6 percentage points over the previous year. In the sulfur dioxide pollution control area, the degree of sulfur dioxide pollution in some cities has been reduced; the proportion of sulfur dioxide in the acid rain control area has reached the second-class standard city.
The population with the air quality reaching the secondary standard city accounted for 33.1% of the statistical urban population, which was 3.3 percentage points lower than that of the previous year; the urban population exposed to the air that did not meet the standard (residential standard, secondary level) accounted for 66.9% of the statistical urban population.
In 2004, the average annual pH range of precipitation in 527 cities (counties) nationwide ranged from 3.05 to 8.20. There were 298 cities with acid rain, accounting for 56.5% of the statistical cities. There are 218 cities with an average annual precipitation pH less than 5.6 (acid rain), accounting for 41.4% of the statistical cities. Compared with the previous year, the proportion of cities with acid rain increased by 2.1 percentage points; the proportion of acid rain cities increased by 4 percentage points, of which the proportion of cities with pH less than 4.5 increased by 2 percentage points; the proportion of cities with acid rain frequency of more than 80% increased. 1.6 percentage points, the acid rain pollution in this year was aggravated compared with the previous year.
In 2004, sulfur dioxide emissions were 22.549 million tons, of which industrial emissions were 18.914 million tons, and domestic emissions were 3.635 million tons; soot emissions were 10.95 million tons, of which industrial emissions were 8.865 million tons and domestic emissions were 208.5 tons. Ten thousand tons; industrial dust emissions are 9.548 million tons.
Acoustic environment In the 328 cities (towns) monitored, cities with good road traffic acoustic environment quality, good, mild pollution, moderate pollution and heavy pollution accounted for 50.9%, 33.2%, 9.8%, 4.3% and 1.8 respectively. %. Among the 312 cities (counties) monitored, the cities with good acoustic environment, good quality, mild pollution, moderate pollution and heavy pollution accounted for 5.2%, 57.1%, 34.6%, 2.9% and 0.3% respectively.
Industrial solid waste In 2004, the national industrial solid waste production was 1.20 billion tons, an increase of 20.0% over the previous year; industrial solid waste emissions were 17.902 million tons, a decrease of 7.7% over the previous year. The comprehensive utilization of industrial solid waste was 680 million tons, and the comprehensive utilization rate was 55.7%, which was the same as the previous year. The amount of hazardous waste generated was 9.63 million tons.
Radiation Environment In 2004, the national environmental gamma radiation air absorbed dose rate was 38.5 ~ 102.6nGy / h, within the fluctuation range of the natural radioactive background level average (50.3 ~ 92.3 nGy / h). The content of radionuclides around the Qinshan Nuclear Power Base in Zhejiang Province and the Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Stations in Guangdong is within the limits set by the state.
The land has 12,244,300 hectares of cultivated land, 1,128,700 hectares of garden land, 235,407,700 hectares of forest land, 262,706,800 hectares of grassland, 25,532,700 hectares of other agricultural land, 25,728,400 hectares of residential and independent industrial and mining land, 2,233,200 hectares of transportation land, and land for water conservancy facilities. 3.589 million hectares, the rest being unused land. Compared with the previous year, the cultivated land decreased by 0.77%, the garden land increased by 1.86%, the forest land increased by 0.46%, the grassland decreased by 0.15%, the residential area and independent industrial and mining land increased by 1.48%, and the transportation land increased by 4.10%.
The country's soil erosion area is 3.56 million km2, accounting for 37.1% of the country's land area. Among them, the area of hydraulic erosion is 1.65 million km2, and the area of wind erosion is 1.91 million km2. The soil erosion range is wide, covering all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities.
By the end of 2004, 2194 nature reserves of different types and grades had been established nationwide, with a total area of 148.226 million hectares (including a land area of about 142.226 million hectares and a sea area of about 6 million hectares). The area of the land nature reserve covers the land area. 14.8%. Among them, there are 226 national nature reserves with an area of 88.713 million hectares, accounting for 10.3% and 59.9% of the total number and total area of the national nature reserves, respectively. Compared with the previous year, the number of nature reserves has increased by 195 and the area has increased by 4.245 million hectares.
Forest The national forest area reached 174.91 million hectares, with a forest coverage rate of 18.21%, a standing stock volume of 13.618 billion cubic meters, and a forest accumulation of 12.456 billion cubic meters.
At the end of 2004, the urban greening area of the built-up area was 959,800 hectares, an increase of 8.9% over the previous year. The green coverage rate of the built-up area increased from 31.15% in the previous year to 31.64%. The urban public green area of the country is 251,700 hectares, an increase of 32,200 hectares over the previous year; the urban per capita has 7.38 square meters of public green space, an increase of 0.89 square meters over the previous year.
Grassland China's natural grassland covers an area of 393 million hectares, accounting for 41.7% of the total land area. The available grassland area is 331 million hectares, accounting for 84.3% of the total grassland area. 90% of the available natural grasslands are degraded to varying degrees, increasing at a rate of 2 million hectares per year. The overall deterioration of the grassland ecological environment has not been reversed. The main reason for exacerbating grassland degradation is that the grassland is over-grazing, the second is unreasonable reclamation and indiscriminate mining, and the third is industrial pollution, rodent pests and insect pests.
Climate and Disasters In 2004 (January to December), the annual average annual precipitation was 22.1 mm less than normal. The annual precipitation in most of the Northeast, the northwest, the southern part of Huanghuai, the Jianghuai, the southern part of the Yangtze River, and the south and southwest regions of China. To a lesser extent, most of North China, the northern part of Huanghuai, the southwestern part and the northwestern part of the country have different degrees. The annual average temperature is higher than the average annual average for the eighth consecutive year. In 2004, most of the country's regions were full of light and heat, the precipitation was relatively smooth, the meteorological disasters were light, and the climate was generally normal, which was a preference for the year.
In 2004, there were many meteorological disasters such as drought, heavy rain, typhoon, hail, high temperature, snow disaster and low temperature freezing. Drought, heavy rain and floods are still the main meteorological disasters, and the area affected by crops accounts for 70% of the total area affected by agriculture.
In 2004, there were 34 earthquakes of magnitude 5 or above in China, including 22 in the mainland and 12 in Taiwan. Among them, there were 5 earthquakes of magnitude 6-7, and 29 earthquakes of magnitude 5-6.
In 2004, there were 13555 geological disasters in the country, including 976 geological disasters causing casualties or economic losses of more than 500,000 yuan. In the whole year, 734 people were killed, 124 were missing, 549 were injured, causing direct economic losses of 40.9. 100 million yuan.
"News Release 54"